A brief history of programming languages

Programming languages are the means by which humans communicate instructions to computers. The history of programming languages dates back to the mid-19th century when Ada Lovelace created the first algorithm intended to be processed by a machine.

The first modern programming language, Fortran (short for “Formula Translation”), was developed in the 1950s by IBM for scientific and engineering applications. COBOL (short for “Common Business-Oriented Language”) was developed around the same time and became popular for business and administrative applications.

In the 1960s, the programming language BASIC (short for “Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code”) was created for education purposes, allowing non-experts to write simple programs.

In the 1970s, programming languages such as Pascal, C, and Lisp were developed, which introduced new features such as structured programming, dynamic memory allocation, and garbage collection.

In the 1980s, the popularity of object-oriented programming led to the creation of programming languages such as Smalltalk, C++, and Objective-C.

In the 1990s, the emergence of the World Wide Web led to the development of programming languages such as HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, which are used to create web pages and applications.

In the 2000s, languages such as Python and Ruby gained popularity for their ease of use and readability, while Java continued to be widely used for enterprise applications.

Today, there are hundreds of programming languages, each with its own strengths and weaknesses, and new languages continue to be developed as technology advances.

Below is an accurate and concise history of the most popular programming languages. Armed with this knowledge, you can confidently discuss the history of your favorite language with your community.

1800 – Joseph Marie Jacquard created the first heavily multi-threaded processing unit by teaching machines to read punch cards.

1842 – Ada Lovelace’s notebook contained the first published computer program.

1936 – Alan Turing and Alonzo Church laid the foundation for computer science.

1957 – John Backus created FORTRAN, the first useful language for programmers.

1959 – Grace Hopper invented COBOL, the first enterprise-ready business-oriented language.

1964 – John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz invented BASIC.

1970 – Niklaus Wirth created Pascal.

1972 – Dennis Ritchie created C.

1980 – Alan Kay invented Smalltalk, which popularized object-oriented programming.

1983 – Bjarne Stroustrup added features to C and created C++.

1986 – Brad Cox and Tom Love created Objective-C.

1987 – Larry Wall invented Perl.

1993 – Roberto Ierusalimschy created Lua.

1994 – Rasmus Lerdorf created PHP.

1995 – Yukihiro Matsumoto created Ruby.

1995 – Brendan Eich invented JavaScript.

1996 – James Gosling invented Java.

2001 – Anders Hejlsberg created C#.

2005 – David Hanselmeyer Hansen invented Ruby on Rails.

2009 – Ken Thompson and Rob Pike created Go.

2010 – Graydon Hoare created Rust.

2012 – Anders Hejlsberg created TypeScript.

2013 – Jeremy Ashkenas created CoffeeScript.

2014 – Chris Lattner created Swift.

As technology continues to evolve, new programming languages will emerge, making it necessary for developers to stay current and adaptable.




Top 5 Programming languages in 2022

Around two decades ago, coding was considered as the future of the technical world that is now true. The sentimental value of coding has increased at a remarkable rate and is even going high with time.

Now, as we are stepping into 2022, we must be aware of the coding languages and the growth of the platform with time. The average salary of coders, nowadays, is more than $22,000 annually. Hence, it is time to solidify your future goals of building a career in programming and dive deep into the coding world. Below are the Top 5 Programming languages in year 2022.

1. Python
For the last few years, we have witnessed remarkable growth with a broad spectrum of future. It has become a popular programming language that is opening endless opportunities for the coders including AI programmers, engineering, data scientists, and many more. It is a great platform if the coders want to kickstart their career in robotics and artificial intelligence.

2. Ruby
If you want to dive into some new mobile application idea then it is best to go ahead with Ruby that allows developers to work on several frameworks. It helps the developers to work on the development with a solid base on the idea and walk into the development process.

3. Java
Java is a great platform for mobile app development that is now growing at a vast rate. It is a leading programming language that is used for website and Android app development for years. Hence, it is best to dive into the platform and pick up a course to learn more about this platform for building blocks to be a full-fledged developer.

4. Javascript
Javascript is currently one of the most popular web programming languages and can run for almost any type of application (e.g. server, mobile, cloud, micro-controllers, etc…). Javascript reached it’s a peak in popularity during the early days of web-development and since then has had a quite steady trend during the last decade.

5. PHP
This programming language is famously known for web development and as a scripting platform. It is ideal to develop home phases, set up a server, and work on some amazing design ideas. It includes several courses that allow developers to understand with the combined knowledge of PHP and Python for maximum capabilities.


Overall Python and Javascript are certently two of the most popular in top 5 programming languages right now. Although, different alternatives such as Julia, Go and Scala are now starting gaining more and more attention from the job market thanks to their various benefits (potentially in the same way like Python did during the last decade).


Top programming languages in 2023

As technology updates, there are new coding languages created every year to keep up with the rapid developments. Yes, there are specific roles and jobs that require you to learn a particular language, but most jobs and companies require a wide understanding and knowledge of languages.

Knowledge of multiple languages lets you apply for your preferred jobs, ask for a better pay pack from your employer, and overall turns you into a versatile developer. Here are some top programming languages that you should learn in 2023.


For developers working on server-side and client-side programming, JavaScript is a popular coding language. What makes JavaScript a one-hit-wonder is its high speed, regular updates, and its compatibility with other programming languages.


Easy to learn with a well-structured code, Python is the most popular coding language amongst the developers. Python is largely used in Machine Learning, web and desktop applications, and GUI applications. Since it offers a large variety of open-source libraries, application development becomes extremely easy with Python.

Declared by Android as its official language, Kotlin interoperates with Java, making Android development faster and easier. Due to its strong tooling support, Google will soon be promoting Kotlin more than Java. Most apps that run on Java are being rewritten in Kotlin and thus, it becomes essential to learn this language in 2020.

Java has been the most popular programming language for server-side applications for almost 24 years now. Java is an object-oriented programming language and is the most preferred language for developing platform-independent and robust applications. Easier to learn and manage, this language requires no hard infrastructure and is easier to learn than other languages, such as C++ or C.

A fairly new one of the top programming languages, Go is the fastest growing language on GitHub, expected to replace languages like Java and C++. Owing to it solving issues like slow compilation, Go is the fifth most preferred language among developers, according to a survey by Stack Overflow.

Even a basic knowledge of C# opens the doors of opportunities for you as a developer. Generally used for developing mobile apps, games, and enterprise software, the language was developed by Anders Hejlsberg led Microsoft and team. C# is a lot similar to Java and for people with basic knowledge about C, C++, or Java, learning C# can turn out as a cakewalk.

Having a thirst for learning as many programming languages as possible can be seen in every aspiring developer and coder. Learning top programming languages according to their popularity and the career growth associated with them can help you reach the height of success you deserve, in the near future.